Lands of Korosten district

The diversity in the distribution of soils of different composition on the territory of the Korosten Oblast was caused by the heterogeneity of the terrain, which was constantly changing, the variety of rocks lying on the surface, and the variety of plant life. In the structure of the soils of the Korosten district, turf-podzolic, turf-podzolic clay, turf soils occupy a dominant position.

In the Korosten district, soils of the same type do not occupy significant areas, almost every field is characterized by diversity, which makes it difficult to apply the same agrotechnical measures when growing agricultural crops.

The quality of the soils of the region is also worsened by the proximity of the rocks of the Ukrainian Crystalline Shield to the surface. In such places, there are poorly developed and hidden podzolic soils with a gravel-stone base, with a soil horizon 5-12 cm thick, as well as the presence of a significant number of “saucers” in the lowered parts of the fields. These soils are infertile due to the fact that the humus content in them is less than 1%.

Sod-podzolic, clay-sand, sod-podzolic sandy, sod-podzolic clay, sod-podzolic clayey sandy, sod-podzolic strongly clayey soils were formed on the plains and non-wetlands. In non-wetted river valleys there are turf and meadow clay soils, and in wetlands there are marshy soils with a humus content of up to 3%. In some areas covered with mixed forest, light gray forest soils can occasionally be distinguished.

Practically all these soils have high acidity, do not retain moisture well, or, on the contrary, some of them are constantly overmoistened. Most often, they require liming, and waterlogged areas – drainage. From these types of soils, humus is quite easily washed away by melt and rainwater, and therefore they require the application of a large amount of organic fertilizers to increase fertility. Very important measures for the preservation and improvement of such soils are their correct processing, especially on slopes and sandy hills, as well as timely alternation of sowing of different crops in crop rotation. But in the practice of management in many agricultural collectives, a scientifically based system of soil use is neglected, which leads to their exhaustion, loss of the fertile soil layer and humus. Anti-erosion measures are not carried out in practically any of the farms of the district, as a result, several thousand hectares of agricultural land were affected by erosion.

The accident at the Chornobyl NPP had a major negative impact on the quality of the region’s soils. Part of the land fund was withdrawn from use in 1990 due to the fact that the soil here is contaminated with radionuclides exceeding 15 curies per square kilometer. There is a decision to assign them to soils that are at the stage of restoring their fertility, but this is almost impossible in the current conditions. In general, all soils of the district require “rehabilitation” from contamination with radionuclides. The simplest and most affordable method is general liming of the soil for a long time. In addition, liming of soils reduces their acidity, increases biological activity, improves physiological properties and structure.

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